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Whether it is authorities businesses, identification thieves, opportunistic hackers or entrepreneurs, everyone wants your personal knowledge. As we stay extra of our lives than ever on-line, we're increasingly conscious of how a lot information we produce, and the need to guard it. With smartphones enjoying a key function in our all the time-linked life-style, there's a brand new breed of companies and devices for shoppers who need to remain off the grid without going offline. Main the cost is the Blackphone, a $629 handset that prioritizes privateness over everything else. Running a customized, safe version of Android and transport with a wealth of privacy instruments preinstalled, it claims to be an "unparalleled product" where information protection is worried. Thanks to the superior of us at on-line retailer GSM Nation, who had been form enough to send one for evaluation, I have been attending to know the machine and discovering out how it keeps data safe from prying eyes. The Blackphone is billed as a security- and privacy-first system, not one with a file-breaking spec sheet or award-successful design. It shouldn't come as a lot of shock, then, that its creators have not invested in making the cellphone visually fascinating. An organization known as SGP Applied sciences officially makes the Blackphone, but it is, in reality, a joint venture of encrypted-comms specialist Silent Circle and Spanish handset-maker GeeksPhone. Whereas the latter's creations tend to prioritize function over type, none have appeared quite as generic as the Blackphone, which may've simply come from any OEM competent in making squares with rounded corners. And the fact is that is exactly where it came from: The Wax from French firm Wiko is basically the same cellphone, albeit with a barely lower-clocked processor and fewer inner storage. There is no prize for guessing what color choices the Blackphone is available in, because there's just one. A mixture of various kinds of black plastic make up the complete physique of the telephone, with a matte-impact again panel hiding the removable battery and microSD/micro-SIM slots. The outer rim of the device is clad in a deeper, nearly shiny plastic dashed with silvery flecks all through. The identical materials is used to cap off the decrease finish of the system -- a design flourish harking back to some older Sony telephones. The Blackphone is specified by fairly standard fashion. On the top edge, you will find the micro-USB port and headphone jack; on the bottom rim is the primary mic; and over on the best are the facility button and volume rocker. Up front is a 4.7-inch display, with the earpiece, a multicolor notification LED and front-dealing with digicam above. Under the display are three backlit capacitive keys in the normal Android arrangement. Shifting around to the backside, the whole lot runs down a central column. From the underside up, we have now: a small loudspeaker grille and white Blackphone emblem; a secondary mic; the principle camera; and an oblong companion flash. The digicam protrudes from the back by about 2mm, meaning it comes in touch with surfaces when the telephone is mendacity face-up. Whereas there is a ring of metal across the lens, it isn't elevated and thus won't cease an abrasive surface from having its means with the glass cowl. 141 x sixty nine x 9mm (not counting the camera bulge). That means there's an honest quantity of bezel framing the screen, but not sufficient to look exterior of normal proportions. More importantly, the Blackphone is snug to carry and use one-handed. An agreeable width takes some credit, however then there are the rounded corners that sit properly in the palm, and the slight curvature to the back panel as it meets the sting of the device. The matte plastic of the battery cover also adds some grip, which helps with single-handed operation. At 119g (4.2 ounces), the handset is extraordinarily light. That is great for when you are carrying the telephone around in your pocket all day, nevertheless it additionally reminds you this is basically an all-plastic affair. Do not get me improper, the whole lot is put together with a relatively high degree of care, but I wouldn't name the build quality sturdy when you can bend and flex the thing easily. Then there are little lapses the QA department has obviously let slide, just like the again panel not fitting snugly at the top edge, or the glass covering the digicam lens glued slightly off-heart. So, the Blackphone would not look special, but the generic design virtually complements the discreet nature of the gadget. It is unlikely to draw the eye of an opportunistic thief scoping out tables at the local bar, for example. I doubt making a furtive gadget was a acutely aware alternative, although, and more the result of making an attempt to maintain hardware costs down. People have an interest within the Blackphone due to its safety-targeted Android construct and app suite, so I perceive why visible attraction wasn't much of a priority. It's important to remember, nevertheless, that this can be a $629 phone, and but it seems and seems like one thing for which you wouldn't even pay half that. Nothing concerning the precise hardware is integral to the Blackphone's security options, so again, if you happen to strip away the custom software program, that is mainly a Wiko Wax, which prices €187, or round $240. The Blackphone has a 4.7-inch, 1,280 x 720 show, which is all of the decision you need on a display that dimension. With a pixel density of 312.Forty seven ppi, even the smallest, thinnest fonts are properly-outlined. The color temperature of the display is value praising, with blacks and whites completely spot-on. Other colors, too, look wealthy without being needlessly saturated. The standard of the panel is nice in that respect, however it is lacking in different areas. Brightness is an issue, for one, as there isn't enough of a distinction between the bottom and highest settings. This isn't an issue in most eventualities, however on a vibrant day, the display doesn't kick out nearly sufficient energy to chop via glare and no matter fingerprint grime is stuck to the glass. Viewing angles are also disappointing, with definition and colours falling away quickly as reflections from the glass take over. Nonetheless, it is a fairly good panel; I simply wish it were easier to read in direct sunlight. And now, the true motive the Blackphone exists: its privacy-focused software program. The handset runs a custom fork of Android 4.4.2 KitKat with the catchy identify PrivatOS (pronounced non-public O S). While custom builds normally layer further options or UI elements on high of what's already there, PrivatOS does the exact opposite. Actually, it strips away almost all the pieces you're used to seeing on an Android device. You get solely the naked essentials for making calls, sending messages and storing contacts, in addition to a calendar, internet browser, calculator, e-mail and camera apps. The sound recorder is nearly a luxury, as is the music participant and gallery app, which doubles because the video player. That is sort of literally the entirety of stock Android apps, meaning there is not any Google integration in any way -- no app retailer, no maps, or the rest you may use recurrently exterior of the basic smartphone functions. However, that's the entire point of the Blackphone, as a result of a uncooked machine is as safe because it gets. Telephone manufacturers must license Google's companies if they need them to work on their devices, but this doesn't actually make sense for the Blackphone. It could introduce all manner of counterintuitive knowledge visitors that is more or less out of your control -- suppose Google Now pulling appointment info out of your calendar, Gmail syncing your contacts and Play Music cataloging the MP3s stored on your device. That being said, SGP is working towards a Google license so Blackphone users can install these companies at their very own discretion, and risk. Because the Blackphone does not have Google Play entry, you will must get your apps elsewhere. This means sideloading or downloading APK information straight onto the gadget (on that observe, you'll have to get an APK installer from someplace) and/or trusting a different app store. You can sideload the Play retailer, by the best way, nevertheless it will not even load. Of the alternatives that do not require a license, Amazon's is an obvious alternative due to its comparatively broad app choice and the way easy it's to get hold of. Going down this route, nonetheless, will inevitably lead to the invention that some apps simply aren't appropriate with the Blackphone, or are inclined to crash recurrently. That's a part of the deal, I'm afraid. Out of the field, a setup wizard guides you through various steps to secure the handset. The primary layer is the basic (and mandatory) lock-display PIN, which has to be at least 5 digits. Then you're prompted to agree to standard Android information encryption, which takes round half an hour on a contemporary machine. After that, it's a must to set up your Silent Circle account, which is for the encrypted communication apps that come bundled with the Blackphone. That completes the preliminary setup, however personalizing the gadget is somewhat more complicated. Every potential chink in Android's armor has been plugged, or fairly, removed. There is not any way to sync contacts or calendars, for example, meaning it's a must to import these manually. And as I discovered, it was ineffective exporting my Google Rolodex to a microSD card because the contacts app won't look for it there (and there is not any file manager to move it to the interior storage). As a substitute, I ended up plugging in an email account and forwarding a vCard library to myself. I can not claim to be an professional in smartphone security, and yet when reaching the point of really being ready to make use of the telephone as a substitute of simply staring at it, I was acutely aware of how walled-in it was. It's a commerce-off of privateness over convenience. Apart from the e-mail app requesting updates once every 5 minutes, I wasn't related to anything. There's simply no data coming in and out of the cellphone -- no app retailer checking for updates, no weather widget pinging a server for data, no freemium game hitting me with discount notifications. However, how are you aware PrivatOS is absolutely as safe as the corporate says? Effectively, apart from having somewhat faith, there's the very fact it's attracted the attention of a number of safety researchers in the hunt for a challenge. SGP Technologies even made the seemingly brave move of bringing the Blackphone to a latest Def Con hacking conference, the place it was rooted (which grants access to a handset's inside workings). While this is actually true and one thing that should not be doable, the telephone was running an older version of PrivatOS that still contained a key vulnerability. Also, normal Android encryption hadn't been enabled, and the handset in question was unlocked, which means the hack passed off after the lock-display screen PIN had been entered. So in Blackphone's protection, it wasn't essentially the most real looking of hacking eventualities. The group at Bluebox Security also discovered a way of getting the usernames and passwords for the bundled privateness apps, which was patched eleven days later. A bug bounty program has launched just lately, too, offering safety researchers money cash in alternate for locating vulnerabilities in both the Blackphone itself, or the Silent Circle suite of apps. Since launch, the Blackphone has acquired a PrivatOS update every month with bug fixes and value enhancements. SGP may even inform you the way it delivers OTA upgrades securely (if you can perceive it), and admits its "merchandise and options won't ever be perfect." It seems dedicated to taking quick motion when vulnerabilities are discovered, nonetheless, and intends to be clear with any data it may share about security issues. A part of PrivatOS is the bundled suite of safety apps, together with the Silent Circle encrypted communications collection that comes straight from one among the businesses that own SGP Applied sciences. It's important to "unlock" the apps each time you restart the handset and from there, you can make HD voice or video calls over any information network (3G/4G/WiFi). The calls are encrypted from finish to end, and Silent Circle is very happy to talk you thru the fancy encryption protocols it uses to ensure your call is non-public. There's additionally an encrypted immediate messing app and separate Silent Circle deal with book. It all works cross-platform, too, across iOS, Android and Windows. The only challenge is the other person has to have the same software to obtain the encrypted call, so it's not like you are immediately James Bond. The unhealthy information is that Silent Circle requires a subscription, with the fundamental bundle costing $10 per month. The excellent news is the Blackphone contains one free year of the essential plan for you, and one free yr for considered one of your nearest and dearest. There's additionally a trio of privateness apps preinstalled on the Blackphone from "chosen" pals. Disconnect Secure Wireless is an utility that routes any web site visitors by way of a VPN if it deems you are on an unsecured network. You possibly can flip it on or off manually, after all, and with the Blackphone, you get 1GB of VPN-piped site visitors per 30 days for one year (this can be upgraded to a limiteless plan for $3 per month or $30 per year). Disconnect Safe Wireless also includes a private shopping function that hinders the tracking skill of websites, and also you get Disconnect Search, too. This lets you search anonymously while nonetheless using fashionable engines like Google, Bing and Yahoo. SpiderOak Blackphone Edition is a safe cloud-storage service, permitting you to back up information, as well as share them with others utilizing password-protected invitations. Your data is encrypted all via the process, so not even from the SpiderOak server room are you able to entry it. Solely the cell and desktop clients, when logged in, have the best keys to unlock your information. Like most apps bundled on the Blackphone, this degree of safety means you, and also you alone, are the gatekeeper. There is no password-recovery feature because that may require storing delicate knowledge remotely. SpiderOak presents 2GB of storage free, however with the Blackphone that jumps as much as 5GB for one year (that is an exclusive offer, as SpiderOak subscription plans begin at $10 per 30 days/$a hundred per year for a 100GB "professional" account). The final third-get together app included in your Blackphone purchase is a free model of the Kismet Smarter Wi-Fi Manager. It principally switches off WiFi when you are away from a trusted network, and turns it back on when you are close to an entry point you have linked to earlier than. It does this by remembering the place of the WiFi network in relation to specific cell towers. You can also set it up to disable WiFi when you are in range of a well-recognized Bluetooth machine, or turn it on and off for specified periods of time. A couple of privateness options are particular to Blackphone, just like the aforementioned setup wizard, and an accompanying License Manager instrument. This app is for reading a QR-code that is printed on a card included with the smartphone, and it robotically unlocks the one-year subscriptions to the Silent Circle suite, Disconnect Secure Wireless and SpiderOak. Another app, Remote Wipe, does exactly what its name suggests: It permits you to instruct the cellphone to power off, delete all data or "brace for impression" remotely. That third possibility is a force-quit command that'll kill any apps from a preset record which are at present operating in the background. The Blackphone Security Middle is probably a very powerful app on the entire system, as it allows you to manage the permissions for every other app. By default, it will not give any apps you install the permission to read private data like your contact listing. Past that, though, you may control exactly what an app has access to, even the bundled software. You may even deny the default music participant the flexibility to vary system quantity, for instance. It is not all that necessary when you're dealing with what's preinstalled on the system, but you'll be able to ensure you will have full dominion over anything you set up thereafter. PrivatOS and its bundled apps/free subscriptions are really what you're paying for when you buy a Blackphone. As I've mentioned, you may get more or less the same telephone for $240 below a unique name. That additional 390-odd dollars goes towards not solely the price of OS improvement and Blackphone-only apps, but additionally the "$399 in further worth" you get from one 12 months of Silent Circle, one additional account and the Disconnect Secure Wireless/SpiderOak subscriptions. Potential consumers should remember that through the course of the review course of, the subscriptions included with the machine have been scaled back drastically -- that "$399 in further value" was actually $829 just a few days in the past (on the time of publication). Beforehand, the private subscriptions to Silent Circle, Disconnect Secure Wireless and SpiderOak had been for two years, not one. Also, you used to receive three one-year gift subscriptions to Silent Circle, and now you only get the one. I requested Blackphone about this modification, and was instructed the unique bundle was an introductory offer for anybody buying the gadget inside the first three months of launch. Moreover, both prospects and potential distribution channels have apparently been "overwhelmingly in favor" of simplifying it. The Blackphone isn't targeted at your common smartphone shopper, which is why I am not too hung up on sure foibles like its generic design, even if it's a pricey machine. In the identical vein, I wasn't anticipating a lot from the imaging experience, which is why I'm pleasantly stunned at just how capable the cameras are. Now, it may appear strange that the Blackphone even has cameras in the primary place, what with it being so involved with privateness. However keep in mind that beneath its custom software, the Blackphone is an OEM gadget, not a handset designed from scratch with top-notch safety in thoughts. For starters, there is a 5-megapixel, fastened-focus shooter up front for selfies and video calling. Not dangerous, considering the Blackphone might've gotten away with a simple VGA or 1.3MP sensor. The main digital camera isn't an enormous improve at eight megapixels (with autofocus), but it surely takes good pictures in a fairly big selection of situations. And i a lot choose versatility to resolution on the camera you take all over the place with you. In shiny situations, pictures are crisp and shade reproduction is impeccable. The digicam is particularly spectacular in the macro range, with the autofocus shortly homing in with reference to that exact close-up. The automatic camera settings are additionally very nicely-tuned -- notably white balance, which copes with artificial lighting higher than any smartphone camera I've used in some time. Auto-exposure compensation doesn't depart much to be desired, but photos typically come out on the darkish facet when pure mild begins working towards you and you are taking pictures a landscape (that is the case with most handsets, although). HDR mode spits out some good, excessive-distinction footage when the scene is amenable to this sort of magic, but it actually comes in useful in low-gentle situations. Now, the main digital camera isn't wonderful when light is lacking, however it's a minimum of approaching the type of mettle Nokia and Motorola have managed to realize despite low megapixel counts. I'm nonetheless inspired by the number of photons the sensor is able to suck up in such circumstances, but the white steadiness setting tends to use an pointless red filter to darker scenes. That is the place the HDR mode is available in useful, so long as you're willing to wait a pair seconds for the picture to course of. I've had no points with white balance when taking HDR shots in low light, and it makes for a brighter and slightly less noisy image compared with an everyday picture. There's at all times the companion flash as a final resort, and it kicks out an honest cone of mild. The standard issues with using a flash nonetheless apply right here, like washed-out pictures with pitch-black backgrounds. Apart from HDR, there are no different special modes like burst capture or even panorama. You're coping with a severely limited inventory digital camera app that does stills, video and nothing else. That being stated, it is very responsive. The app boots up immediately, and the shutter-response time is nearly as fast, which somewhat makes up for the lack of burst-seize help. Image-processing time clearly increases in HDR mode, but solely as much as round a second in good conditions. When light starts fading, the autofocus and shutter speeds starts to decline in parallel, but this is all pretty regular. The app itself is an easy affair, with only some settings to regulate: white steadiness, publicity compensation, scene selection and, in fact, image decision. Must you want to tweak any of those manually, they're all shortly accessible from the viewfinder window. There may be one noticeable difficulty with the digicam app: It hangs for a few second when you are turning the cellphone from landscape to portrait orientation. Nearly all of the time, it resumes the best way it ought to, but it does often crash. Ok. There's a drop in clarity in comparison with stills when filming in 1080p, and alongside the extra noise, it sometimes drops a few frames when you're shifting or panning quickly. Auto-publicity compensation could be just a little skittish as well, but once more, this is a reasonably frequent downside with smartphone cameras. Audio quality is notably poor. Not only is the volume extraordinarily low, but additionally every part sounds muffled and distant. Recordings also don't hold up in low mild almost in addition to stills, however you'll be able to still go for a grainy, in poor health-outlined clip if the scenario completely requires it. The Blackphone is considered one of only some handsets packing NVIDIA's quad-core, 2GHz Tegra 4i SoC, and right here it is paired with 1GB of RAM and sixteen gigs of internal storage, although only around 12 and a half of that is user-accessible. There's all the time the microSD slot that helps as much as 128GB cards for those who need extra, of course. NVIDIA has a reference device it makes use of to exhibit the graphics capabilities of its cell chip, but naturally I had to test that myself. With the Google Play retailer unavailable, I searched for probably the most intensive-looking 3D video games I may find in Amazon's app retailer, and settled on GT Racing 2, Indignant Birds Go! NVIDIA is aware of a thing or three about gaming, so it's no surprise it handled all of my decisions with ease -- more often than not, anyway. I was particularly aware of quick loading times, both when booting up the titles and hopping into different tracks inside them. I am hesitant to pin this on NVIDIA's chip, though, as I had comparable experiences when using non-intensive apps, and infrequently when just cycling through menus or the app drawer. Otherwise, it's relatively fast in general use, but you can provoke it into stuttering by attempting to do an excessive amount of too shortly -- sort of like an old Laptop that's on its means out. After i began to feel it getting too gradual, a reboot introduced it back up to hurry. I've already mentioned the digital camera app can stall when rotating the phone, which leads me to imagine there's some software program optimization or bug fixes to be executed. The safety Heart permissions manager runs in the background while nearly all of apps are open, too, which might be to blame for some of the stuttering. It never will get to the point of really frustrating, but let's just say it's nowhere close to as slick as it could possibly be, particularly when the Blackphone runs a stripped-down, albeit custom Android build. NVIDIA's chip also includes an LTE radio, which is capable of as much as one hundred Mbps download speeds. This is as fast because the Cat 3 customary goes, however NVIDIA has achieved Cat four speeds with newer Tegra 4i software program. Blackphone is presently testing this Cat four update internally, and if all goes nicely, I am told it'll be rolled out earlier than the top of the year. For reference, the North American model supports bands 4, 7 and 17, and the international mannequin 3, 7 and 20. I had no issues with internet efficiency using the stock browser. Websites load shortly (as quick as you count on them to on a mobile gadget, anyway) and tiling is only just noticeable when quickly zooming in and out of desktop websites. Navigating round web sites is smooth, too, and it is necessary to notice that working site visitors by way of the Disconnect Safe Wireless VPN service did not seem to have any impression on performance. The music-listening experience on the Blackphone is basically the identical as it is on each other smartphone. It is clear and crisp sufficient, however lacking readability on the low end, so keep those bass-boosting headphones at the ready. It's also noticeably lacking in quantity, however this should solely be a difficulty if you're carrying leaky headphones in a noisy atmosphere. Any over- or in-ears will render this downside moot. The loudspeaker is, amazingly, one of the worst I've come across, with distortion making music nearly unrecognizable. It is simply fantastic for taking palms-free calls, although. Connectivity-wise, the Blackphone has dual-band WiFi 802.11b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.0 LE, Miracast support and GPS. While this covers most bases, it is missing 802.11ac, NFC, GLONASS, et cetera -- things you'd usually count on in a $629 handset. It is exhausting to really choose GPS performance, as the Blackphone does not have any mapping or navigation apps out of the field. A sideloaded version of Google Maps (and the mobile website) refuses to communicate with the GPS module, as does Yelp (downloaded from the Amazon app retailer). MapQuest (also from the Amazon store) is the one app that can efficiently house in on my location, however mapping information loads painfully slowly over a cellular connection for some purpose. The GPS module is imagined to be totally purposeful, as you will have complete management over what apps can entry it by way of the Blackphone Safety Center. App compatibility issues strike again, it appears. I had no hassle with WiFi connections themselves, but it's worrying that at around six feet from my router, it still only registers two out of three bars of reception. The cellular connection is more of the identical. In my South London residence, I am normally at full bars regardless of the phone I am using, however I managed only two out of four with the Blackphone. If you are in a low-reception area or have WiFi dull spots around your own home, these seemingly underpowered parts may provide you with some hassle. However, the Bluetooth labored simply effective, with quick device discovery and connections. The Blackphone's 2,000mAh battery is neither extraordinary nor terrible. With intensive use -- together with looking, downloading and installing APKs, listening to music, checking e-mail, taking pictures and some temporary gaming spurts -- it obtained by means of practically an entire day with out dying, although I did lower again on display time once i saw the battery dropping to alarming proportion levels. With barely more conservative use, it lasted a day and a half without requiring charging. The Blackphone retails for a whopping $629 if purchased direct from SGP, and the only reseller I do know of is GSM Nation, which will promote you one for only $549 (disclaimer: GSM Nation offered our review handset). For that variety of money you possibly can have your pick of any smartphone in the marketplace, flagship or otherwise. You are not just shopping for some other smartphone, although; you are buying a substrate for PrivatOS and its included apps to live on. On this respect, the Blackphone is a niche gadget that's all however incomparable to anything on the market. There are a number of encrypted-communication apps and related privateness services for each Android and iOS platforms, but within the realm of tremendous-secure handsets, you do not have much choice. Boeing has developed its own "Black" telephone specifically for the military and sure companies, which even has a modular design to include extras like solar charging, satellite communications and biometric sensors. The only different security-focused system for the consumer market is the FreedomPop Privateness Phone, a Galaxy S II with added software program for encrypted comms and safer web entry through VPNs. At $189, it is a bargain compared to the Blackphone, however then once more, it would not take privateness to fairly the identical extreme. Should you look on the Blackphone purely from a hardware perspective, it is nothing particular. It has LTE, a good set of cameras and acceptable specs, however it's hardly a poster little one for inspired design, and the show might do with being about twice as highly effective. As you've heard more than just a few times already, it's all in regards to the software. That is not perfect either, though, with spotty app help and a few efficiency kinks that must be ironed out. Then there's the everyday person expertise. I perceive you cannot exactly set up all of Google's providers as customary and still name the thing secure, however people will inevitably want to use the telephone for issues other than its primary capabilities. Ultimately, this must be on the discretion of the individual consumer, however anyone that is not au fait with different apps shops and side-loading APKs will battle. The Blackphone could do a greater job of supporting customers in this regard, with out them needing to dig by way of forums for solutions. Perhaps in future iterations of PrivatOS, or other safety-centric phones that come to the market, we'll see a better stability between comfort and privacy. For now, although, the Blackphone shouldn't be for the faint of coronary heart. All this being said, you cannot really fault how locked-down it's, and despite the excessive worth tag, you are primarily getting subsidized subscriptions to some of the perfect cell security providers, in addition to helpful bespoke apps like the safety Heart permissions supervisor. If privacy is vital to you, the Blackphone is sort of actually what you're after in a mobile device. Besides, you don't have much choice currently. One factor I'm nonetheless coming to terms with, nonetheless, is the idea of selling peace of mind. As Edward Snowden continues to leak information about how the NSA and other national government companies had been/are hoovering up every bit of personal knowledge available to them, digital privateness has by no means been a hotter subject. With folks wanting extra management over how their knowledge is handled, it was inevitable that products like the Blackphone would seem. There is a tremendous line between leveraging a mild international hysteria to promote a distinct segment and expensive smartphone, and creating the very best product to serve a rising market need -- and in that sense, PrivatOS and the Blackphone's bundled apps are likely to satisfy even probably the most demanding privacy-conscious shopper. I guess it would not really matter both method: No one's forcing anyone to buy a brilliant-secure handset. And, even when the Blackphone is one among a brand new, shrewd era of opportunistic ventures on this space, it can't be blamed for creating the demand. All products really useful by Engadget are selected by our editorial workforce, impartial of our guardian company. Some of our tales embody affiliate links. If you purchase one thing through one of these links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

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